There are several internet protocols, each of which operates at a different layer and builds on the functionality of the layer above. Internet protocols are also known as standards, and they are a vital part of the Internet. These protocols determine how digital data is passed between two computing devices. For example, two devices connected to the internet use a physical mechanism for sending and receiving data, called a network interface. The transmission of this data occurs through electromagnetic signals, either wired or wireless. Different types of physical connections allow for different bit rates and bandwidths.
Although the Internet is a global network, each computer on the same network may use different Internet protocols. HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol, and it is used for sharing text on the World Wide Web. This protocol defines the format of information that web browsers should send, and what they should do in response to a request. Besides data, HTTP is also used to transfer text, multimedia, and graphics. HTML is another protocol that is commonly used on the World Wide Web.
Internet Protocols work on a layered architecture. For example, when an image is being sent from a client to a server, the server will convert the image into a packet. It will then send the packet back to the client, and in the reverse process, it will reverse the process. Typically, this is done to prevent lost or duplicated packets. To prevent this, internet protocols use a process called TCP acknowledgment, which ensures that each packet is sent successfully.
Before the Internet was widely used, the ARPANET was a tiny network that grew to be one of many. The network was originally owned by the US military but eventually became a network for scientists and research. ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990, and the National Science Foundation built the core of a new cross-country network in 1981. Businesses were not allowed on ARPANET, but commercial IP-based networks were created in response.
When a network expands beyond two computers, addressing protocols are necessary. These protocols uniquely identify senders and recipients of data. Every node on the Internet has an IP address (Internet Protocol). While a data path from one computer to another is a simple one, the route from A to B involves a number of intermediate computers, such as routers. This is where an Internet routing protocol comes in. This protocol is the most important, as it allows data to reach its destination.
In the history of the Internet Protocol, there have been several major revisions. While the first mention of IPv4 dates back to 1974, it has undergone many changes. IPv4 is the first official version. The number refers to the fourth version of the TCP protocol. IPv6 is its direct successor. IPv5 was suspended prematurely for economic reasons. In the meantime, IPv6 has undergone significant changes. In fact, there are now more than 340 billion different addresses.